UK

Literature relating to sulfur-species problems in the UK

Last updated 10.10.15

2015

Czerewko, M.A., and Cross, S.A. (2015). Benefits of a granular construction interface in highway construction over pyritic subgrades for mitigating against deleterious ground effects. Proceedings of the XVI ECSMGE Geotechnical Engineering for Infrastructure and Development. pp. 2355-2360.

Hawkins, A.B., and St John, T.W. (2015). Engineering significance of sulfur/sulfate in glacial tills. Proceedings of the XVI ECSMGE Geotechnical Engineering for Infrastructure and Development. pp. 2395-2400.

2013

Brueckner, R., Williamson, S.J., and Clark. (2013). Chemical interactions at the concrete/clay interface due to thaumasite form of sulfate attack. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers Geotechnical Engineering.166 (4), 408-414.

Hawkins, A.B. (2013). Some engineering geological effects of drought: examples from the UK. Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment. 72, 37–59.

Hawkins, A.B., and St. John, T.W. (2013). Importance of understanding the development and significance of sulphates in the London Clay. Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013, pp. 3103-3106. Link to full paper PDF.

Pritchard, O.G., Hallett, S.H., and Farewell, T.S. (2013a). Soil movement in the UK – Impacts on critical infrastructure. ITRC Working Paper Series. Link to full paper PDF.

Pritchard, O.G., Hallett, S.H., and Farewell, T.S. (2013b). Soil corrosivity in the UK – impacts on critical infrastructure. ITRC Working Paper Series.

2012

Brueckner, R., Williamson, S.J., and Clark. (2012a). The effects of the thaumasite form of sulfate attack on skin friction at the concrete/clay interface. Cement and Concrete Research. 42, 424-430.

Brueckner, R., Williamson, S.J., and Clark. (2012b). Rate of thaumasite form of sulfate attack under laboratory conditions. Cement and Concrete Research. 34, 365-369.

Czerewko, M.A., and Cripps, J.C. (2012). Mudrocks, clays and pyrite, Chapter 36. ICE Manual of Geotechnical Engineering. pp. 481-516.

Reid, J.M. (2012). Sulfate/acid soils. Chapter 37. ICE Manual of Geotechnical Engineering. pp. 517-532.

2011

BRE. (2011). Hardcore for supporting ground floors of buildings. DG 522-Part 1. BRE, Bracknell.

Czerewko, M.A., Cross, S.A., Dimelow, P.G., and Saadvandi, A. (2011). Assessment of pyritic Lower Lias mudrocks for earthworks. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers Geotechnical Engineering. 164, 59-77.

McCarthy, M.J., Csetenyl, L.J., Jones, M.R., and Sachdeva, A. (2011). Clay-lime stabilization: characterizing fly ash effects in minimizing the risk of sulfate heave. 2011 World of Coal Ash Conference. May 9-12, Denver, USA.

Rahmat, M.N., and Kinuthia, J.M. (2011). Effects of mellowing sulfate-bearing clay soil stabilized with wastepaper sludge ash for road construction. Engineering Geology. 117, 170-179.

2009

Reid, J.M., and Avery, K. (2009). Measuring the potential reactivity of sulfides in aggregates. Final project report for MIST Project MA/7/G/5/001, May 2009.

2008

BRE. (2008). Sulfate damage to concrete floors on sulfate-bearing hardcore. Identification and remediation. Department for Communities and Local Government. RIBA Publishing, London. Link to full report PDF.

2007

Clark, L.A. (2007). The management of the thaumasite form of sulphate attack in the UK. Magazine of Concrete Research. 59 (7), 465-467.

Highways Agency. (2007). Design Manual for Roads and Bridges, Vol. 4, Section 1, Part 6 (HA 74/04). Treatment of Fill and Capping Materials Using Either Lime or Cement or Both. The Stationary Office, London.

2006

Cooper, A.H. (2006). Gypsum dissolution geohazards at Ripon, North Yorkshire, UK. IAEG 2006 Field Trip Guide Ripon. The Geological Society of London. pp. 1-14.

Czerewko, M.A., and Cripps, J.C. (2006). Sulfate and sulfide minerals in the UK and their implications for the built environment. Paper 121. In: Proceedings of the 10th IAEG International Congrees, Engineering Geology for Tomorrow’s Cities. Nottingham, UK, September 6th-10th, 2006. Geological Society, London.

Longworth, I. (2006). Sulfate damage to concrete floors on sulfate-bearing hardcore: identification and remediation. RIBA Publishing, London.

2005

BRE. (2005). Special Digest 1: Concrete in aggressive ground. BRE, Watford.

Britpave. (2005). Stabilisation of sulfate-bearing soils. Technical Guidelines. Britpave, Surrey. Link to full report PDF.

Reid, J. M., Czerewko, M., & Cripps, J. C. (2005). Sulfate specification for structural backfills. TRL Report 447 (updated). Transport Research Laboratory.

RICS. (2005). The “Mundic” Problem – Supplement to Second Edition-Stage 3 Expansion Testing. The Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors, UK.

2004

Longworth, I. (2004a). Development of guidance on classification of sulfate-bearing ground for concrete. Concrete. 38 (2), 25-26.

Longworth, I. (2004b). Assessment of sulfate-bearing ground for soil stabilisation for built environment. Technical Note. Ground Engineering, May 2004.

Neville, A. (2004). The confused world of sulfate attack on concrete. Cement and Concrete Research. 34, 1275-1296.

Parker, D. (2004a). Lime stabilisation layer suspected in case of buckling bypass. Ground Engineering. 37 (4), 3.

Parker, D. (2004b). Hertfordshire bypass heaves under sulphate attack. New Civil Engineer. 11 March 2004.

Parker, D. (2004c). 25% of A10 hit by sulphide attack. New Civil Engineer. 25th March, pg. 12.

2003

BRE. (2003). Concrete in aggressive ground: Assessing the aggressive chemical environment. BRE Special Digest 1 Part 1.

BRE. (2003). Concrete in aggressive ground: Specifying concrete and additional protective measures. BRE Special Digest 1 Part 2.

BRE. (2003). Concrete in aggressive ground: Design guides for common applications. BRE Special Digest 1 Part 3.

BRE. (2003). Concrete in aggressive ground: Design guides for specific precast products. BRE Special Digest 1 Part 4.

Byars, E. (2003a). Full-scale foundation simulation and concrete/clay interface testing. International seminar on the thaumasite form of sulfate attack of concrete, University of Sheffield, 24th June 2003. Link to full presentation PDF.

Byars, E. (2003b). Control of thaumasite formation in concrete. International seminar on the thaumasite form of sulfate attack of concrete, University of Sheffield, 24th June 2003. Link to full presentation PDF.

Clark, L. (2003). Thaumasite sulfate attack – the UK experience. International seminar on the thaumasite form of sulfate attack of concrete, University of Sheffield, 24th June 2003. Link to full presentation PDF.

Collard-Jenkins, S.J., Ilett, E., and Pearson-Kirk, D. (2003). Thaumasite investigations to M4 overbridges. Cement and Concrete Research. 25, 1095-1103.

Crammond, N.J. (2003a). The thaumasite form of sulfate attack in the UK. Cement and Concrete Composites. 25, 809-818.

Crammond, N.J. (2003b). Three-year findings from the BRE thaumasite field trial.International seminar on the thaumasite form of sulfate attack of concrete, University of Sheffield, 24th June 2003. Link to full presentation PDF.

Crammond, N.J., Collett, G.W., and Longworth, T.I. (2003). Thaumasite field trial at Shipston on Stour: three-year preliminary assessment of buried concretes. Cement and Concrete Composites. 25, 1035-1043.

Cripps, J.C. (2003). Effect of weathering on pyritic clay aggressivity. International seminar on the thaumasite form of sulfate attack of concrete, University of Sheffield, 24th June 2003. Link to full presentation PDF.

Czerewko, M.A., Cripps, J.C., Reid, J.M., and Duffell, C.G. (2003a). Sulfur species in geological materials – sources and quantification. Cement and Concrete Composites. 25, 657-671.

Czerewko, M.A., Cripps, J.C., Duffell, C.G., and Reid, J.M. (2003b). The distribution and evaluation of sulfur species in geological materials and manmade fills. Cement and Concrete Composites. 25, 1025–1034.

Czerewko, M.A., Cripps, J.C., Reid, J.M., and Duffell, C.G. (2003c). The effects of storage conditions on the sulfur speciation in geological materials. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology. 36, 331-342.

Floyd, M., Czerewko, M.A., Cripps, J.C., and Spears, D.A. (2003). Pyrite oxidation in Lower Lias Clay at concrete highway structures affected by thaumasite, Gloucestershire, UK. Cement and Concrete Composites. 25, 1015-1024.

Hill, J., Byars, E.A., Sharp, J.H., Lynsdale, C.J., Cripps, J.C., and Zhou, Q. (2003). An experimental study of combined acid and sulfate attack of concrete. Cement and Concrete Composites. 25, 997-1003.

Longworth, T.I. (2003a). Contribution of construction activity to aggressive ground conditions causing the thaumasite form of sulfate attack to concrete in pyritic ground. Cement and Concrete Composites. 25, 1005-1013.

Longworth, I. (2003b). Site exposure testing of pyritic Lower Lias Clay. International seminar on the thaumasite form of sulfate attack of concrete, University of Sheffield, 24th June 2003. Link to full presentation PDF.

Loudon, N. (2003). A review of the experience of thaumasite sulfate attack by the UK Highways Agency. Cement and Concrete Composites. 25, 1051-1058.

Sharp, J. (2003). The mechanism of thaumasite formation. International seminar on the thaumasite form of sulfate attack of concrete, University of Sheffield, 24th June 2003. Link to full presentation PDF.

Slater, D., Floyd, M., and Wimpenny, D.E. (2003). A summary of the Highways Agency thaumasite investigation in Gloucestershire: the scope of work and main findings. Cement and Concrete Composites. 25, 1067-1076.

Torres, S.M. (2003). Thaumasite formation in limestone filler cement mortar under sulfate and chloride exposure. International seminar on the thaumasite form of sulfate attack of concrete, University of Sheffield, 24th June 2003. Link to full presentation PDF.

Zhou, Q. (2003). The role of pH in thaumasite sulfate attack. International seminar on the thaumasite form of sulfate attack of concrete, University of Sheffield, 24th June 2003. Link to full presentation PDF.

2002

BRE. (2002). BRE Report 441. Avoiding deterioration of cement-based building materials and components. Lessons from case studies: 4. CRC, London.

Collard-Jenkins, S.J., Illet, E., and Pearson-Kirk, D. (2002). Thaumasite investigations in foundations to M4 overbridges. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Thaumasite in Cementicious Materials. BRE, Garston, UK, June 19th-21st 2002.

Cooper, A.H., and Saunders, J.M. (2002). Road and bridge construction across gypsum karst in England. Engineering Geology. 65, 217-223.

Crammond, N.J. (2002a). The occurrence of thaumasite in modern construction – a review. Cement and Concrete Research. 24, 393-402.

Crammond, N.J. (2002b). The thaumasite form of sulfate attack in the UK. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Thaumasite in Cementicious Materials. BRE, Garston, UK, June 19th-21st 2002.

Crammond, N.J., Collett, G.W., and Longworth, T.I. (2002). Thaumasite field trial at Shipston on Stour: three year preliminary assessment of buried structures. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Thaumasite in Cementicious Materials. BRE, Garston, UK, June 19th-21st 2002.

Dunster, A. (2002). Avoiding deterioration of cement-based building materials and components. Lessons from case studies: 4. BRE Report 441. BRE, Watford.

Eden, M.A. (2002). The laboratory investigation of concrete affected by TSA in the UK. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Thaumasite in Cementicious Materials. BRE, Garston, UK, June 19th-21st 2002.

Floyd, M. (2002). An assessment of UK classifications of aggressive ground conditions using the relative degree of thaumasite sulfate attack measured at buried concrete structures in Gloucestershire, UK. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Thaumasite in Cementicious Materials. BRE, Garston, UK, June 19th-21st 2002.

Floyd, M., Czerewko, M.A., Cripps, J.C., and Spears, D.A. (2002). Pyrite oxidation in Lower Lias Clay at concrete highway structures affected by thaumasite, Gloucestershire, UK. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Thaumasite in Cementicious Materials. BRE, Garston, UK, June 19th-21st 2002.

Floyd, M., and Wimpenny, D.E. (2002). Procedures for assessing thaumasite sulfate attack and adjacent ground conditions at buried concrete structures. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Thaumasite in Cementicious Materials. BRE, Garston, UK, June 19th-21st 2002.

Foundation, E.J. (2002). The myth of thaumasite sulfate attack. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Thaumasite in Cementicious Materials. BRE, Garston, UK, June 19th-21st 2002.

Gorst, N.J.S., and Clark, L.A. (2002). Effects of thaumasite on bond strength of reinforcement in concrete. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Thaumasite in Cementicious Materials. BRE, Garston, UK, June 19th-21st 2002.

Hobbs, D.W. (2002). Thaumasite sulfate attack in field and laboratory concretes: implications for specifications. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Thaumasite in Cementicious Materials. BRE, Garston, UK, June 19th-21st 2002.

Longworth, T.I. (2002). Contribution of construction activity to aggresive ground conditions causing the thaumasite form sulfate attack to concrete in pyritic ground. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Thaumasite in Cementicious Materials. BRE, Garston, UK, June 19th-21st 2002.

Loudon, N. (2002). A review of the experience of thaumasite sulfate attack by the UK Highways Agency. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Thaumasite in Cementicious Materials. BRE, Garston, UK, June 19th-21st 2002.

Nixon, P.J. (2002). New UK guidance on the use of concrete in aggressive ground. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Thaumasite in Cementicious Materials. BRE, Garston, UK, June 19th-21st 2002.

Sibbick, R.G., Crammond, N.J., and Metcalf, D. (2002). The microscopical characterisation of thaumasite. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Thaumasite in Cementicious Materials. BRE, Garston, UK, June 19th-21st 2002.

Sibbick, T., Fenn, D., and Crammond, N.J. (2002). The occurrence of thaumasite as a product of seawater attack. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Thaumasite in Cementicious Materials. BRE, Garston, UK, June 19th-21st 2002.

Sims, I., and Huntley, S.A. (2002). The thaumasite form of sulfate attack – breaking the rules. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Thaumasite in Cementicious Materials. BRE, Garston, UK, June 19th-21st 2002.

Slater, D., Floyd, M., and Wimpenny, D.E. (2002). A summary of the Highways Agency thaumasite investigation in Gloucestershire: the scope of work and main findings. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Thaumasite in Cementicious Materials. BRE, Garston, UK, June 19th-21st 2002.

Slater, D., Knights, J.C., and Wimpenny, D.E. (2002). Sulfate and chloride profiles and the visual characteristics with depth from the face in buried concrete subject to TSA. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Thaumasite in Cementicious Materials. BRE, Garston, UK, June 19th-21st 2002.

Thaumasite Expert Group. (2002). Thaumasite Expert Group report: review after three years experience.

Wallace, J. (2002). Finding thaumasite sulfate attack – consequences for works in progress. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Thaumasite in Cementicious Materials. BRE, Garston, UK, June 19th-21st 2002.

White, S.J., Smy, R.H., and Lynch, M. (2002). UK Highways Agency Area 2: managing the threat of thaumasite sulfate attack. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Thaumasite in Cementicious Materials. BRE, Garston, UK, June 19th-21st 2002.

Wimpenny, D., and Slater, D. (2002). Evidence from the Highways Agency thaumasite investigation in Gloucestershire to support or contradict postulated mechanisms of thaumasite formation and thaumasite sulfate attack. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Thaumasite in Cementicious Materials. BRE, Garston, UK, June 19th-21st 2002.

2001

Banks, S.B., and Banks, D. (2001). Abandoned mines drainage: impact assessment and mitigation of discharges from coal mines in the UK. Engineering Geology. 60, 31-37.

BRE. (2001). Concrete in aggressive ground: Assessing the aggressive chemical environment. BRE Special Digest 1 Part 1.

BRE. (2001). Concrete in aggressive ground: Specifying concrete and additional protective measures. BRE Special Digest 1 Part 2.

BRE. (2001). Concrete in aggressive ground: Design guides for common applications. BRE Special Digest 1 Part 3.

BRE. (2001). Concrete in aggressive ground: Design guides for specific precast products. BRE Special Digest 1 Part 4.

British Cement Association. (2001). Specifying concrete to BS EN 206-1/BS 8500. Concrete resistant to chemical attack. British Cement Association, Surrey.

Hawkins, A.B. (2001). The engineering significance of ground chemistry. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Engineering Geology and the Environment. International Association of Engineering Geology. 4, 3561-3578.

Highways Agency. (2001). Interim Advice Note (IAN) 48/03. Measures to minimise the risk of sulfate attack (including thaumasite). New construction and structures under construction”.

Reid, J. M., Czerewko, M., & Cripps, J. C. (2001). Sulfate specification for structural backfills. TRL Report 447. Transport Research Laboratory.

2000

Atkinson, M.F. (2000). Structural defects reference manual for low-rise buildings. Spon Press, London.

Bromley, A. A compendium of concrete aggregates used in Southwest England. Petrolab, UK.

Highways Agency. (2000). Report HA 74/00. Treatment of fill and capping materials using either lime or cement or both. Design Manual for Roads and Bridges.

Thaumasite Expert Group. (2000). Thaumasite Expert Group one-year review.

1999

Longworth, I. (1999). Responding to thaumasite form sulfate attack. Ground Engineering April 1999. pp. 24-25.

Thaumasite Expert Group (TEG). (1999). The thaumasite form of sulfate attack: risks, diagnosis, remedial works and guidance on new construction. DETR, London.

Wild, S., Kinuthia, J.M., Jones, G.I., and Higgins, D.D. (1999). Suppression of swelling associated with ettringite formation in lime stabilized sulphate bearing clay soils by partial substitution of lime with ground granulated blastfurnace slag. Engineering Geology. 51, 257-277.

1998

Cooper, A.H. (1998). Subsidence hazards caused by the dissolution of Permian gypsum in England: geology, investigation and remediation. Geological Society, London, Engineering Geology Special Publications. 15, 265-275.

Cooper, A.H., and Calow, R.C. (1998). Avoiding gypsum geohazards: guidance for planning and construction. British Geological Survey. Technical Report WC/98/5. Link to full PDF.

Hawkins, A.B. (1998). Engineering significance of ground sulphates. In Robertson & Mayne (eds.). Geotechnical Site Characterization. Balkema, Rotterdam. pp. 685-692.

1997

Anon. (1997). The ‘‘Mundic’’ Problem—A guidance note (2nd ed.). Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors, London.

Bromley, A., and Pettifer, K. (1997). Sulfide-related degradation of concrete in Southwest England (The Mundic problem). Building Research Establishment. BRE Laboratory Report 325.

Cripps, J.C., and Edwards, R.L. (1997). Some geotechnical problems associated with pyrite-bearing rocks. In: Hawkins, A.B. (ed.) Implications of Ground Chemistry and Microbiology for Construction. Balkema, Rotterdam. pp. 77-87.

Davies, S.E., and Reid, J.M. (1997). Roadford dam: geochemical aspects of construction of a low grade rockfill embankment. In: Hawkins, A.B. (ed.) Implications of Ground Chemistry and Microbiology for Construction. Balkema, Rotterdam. pp. 111-131.

Hawkins, A.B., and Higgins, M.D. (1997a). Development of ground sulphates in Ordovician deposits: A case study. In: Marinos et al (eds.) Engineering Geology and the Environment. Balkema, Rotterdam. pp. 151-154.

Hawkins, A.B., and Higgins, M.D. (1997b). The generation of sulfates in the proximity of cast in situ piles. In: Hawkins, A.B. (ed.) Implications of Ground Chemistry and Microbiology for Construction. Balkema, Rotterdam. pp. 101-109.

Hawkins, A.B., and Pinches, G.M. (1997). Understanding sulphate generated heave resulting from pyrite degradation. In: Hawkins, A.B. (ed.) Implications of Ground Chemistry and Microbiology for Construction. Balkema, Rotterdam. pp. 51-76.

Jackson, S.D., and Cripps, J.C. (1997). Investigation of the effects of bacterial action on the chemistry and mineralogy of pyritic shale. In: Hawkins, A.B. (ed.) Implications of Ground Chemistry and Microbiology for Construction. Balkema, Rotterdam. pp. 77–88.

Robbins, N.S., Kinniburgh, D.G., and Bird, M.J. (1997). Generation of acid groundwater beneath City Road, London. In: Hawkins, A.B. (ed.) Implications of Ground Chemistry and Microbiology for Construction. Balkema, Rotterdam. pp. 232-255.

1996

Bracegirdle, A., Jefferis, S.A., Tedd, P., Crammond, N.J., Chudleigh, I., and Burgess, N. (1996). The investigation if acid generation within the Woolwich and Reading Beds at Old Street and its effect on tunnel linings. Geotechnical aspects of underground construction in soft ground. Mair and Taylor (eds), Balkema, Rotterdam.

BRE. (1996). Sulfate and acid resistance of concrete in the ground. Digest 363. BRE, Watford.

Cooper, A.H. (1996). Gypsum: geology, quarrying, mining and geo- logical hazards in the Chellaston area of South Derbyshire. British Geological Survey Technical Report WA/96/30.

Lugg, A., and Probert, D. (1996). “Mundic”-type problems: a building material catastrophe. Construction and Building Materials. 10 (6), 467-474.

Snedker, E.A. (1996). M40 – Lime stabilisation experiences. Lime Stabilisation: Proceedings of Seminar at Loughborough University. Thomas Telford, London. pp. 142-153.

Thomson, A., Hine, P.D., Greig, J.R., and Peach, D.W. (1996). Assess- ment of subsidence arising from gypsum dissolution. Technical Report for the Department of the Environment. Symonds Group, East Grinstead.

1995

Bowley, M.J. (1995). Sulphate and acid attack on concrete in the ground: recommended procedures for soil analysis. BRE Report BR 279. CRC, London.

Cooper, A.H. (1995). Subsidence hazards due to the dissolution of Permian gypsum in England: investigation and remediation. In: Beck, F.B. (Ed.), Karst Geohazards: Engineering and Environ- mental Problems in Karst Terrane. Proceedings of the Fifth Multidisciplinary Conference on Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst. Tennessee, 2–5 April. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam. pp. 23–29.

Crammond, N.J., and Halliwell, M.A. (1995). The thaumasite form of sulfate attack in concretes containing a source of carbonate ions – a microstructural overview. In: Second Symposium on Advances in Concrete Technology. pp. 357–80.

Forster, A., Culshaw, M.G., and Bell, F.G. (1995). Regional distribution of sulphate in rocks and soils of Britain. Geological Society Engineering Geology Special Publications. 10, 95-104.

1993

Anderson, W.F., and Cripps, J.C. (1993). The effects of acid leaching on the shear strength of Namurian Shale. In: The Engineering Geology of Weak Rock. Engineering Geology Special Publications. pp. 159-168.

Cripps, J.C., Hawkins, A.B., and Reid, J.M. (1993). Engineering problems with pyritic mudrocks. 3 (3), 16-19.

Sandover, B.R., and Norbury, D.R. (1993). Technical note: on the occurrence of abnormal acidity in granular soils. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology. 26 (2), 149-153.

1990

Collins, R.L. (1990). Case studies of floor heave due to microbiological activity in pyritic shales. In: Howsam, P., (ed.) Microbiology in civil engineering. FEMS Symposium 59. Chapman and Hall, London.

Hawkins, A.B. (1990). A case study of sulphate induced ground heave. In: Howsam, P., (ed.) Microbiology in civil engineering. FEMS Symposium 59. Chapman and Hall, London.

Hawkins, A.B., and Wilson, S.L.S. (1990). Sulphate increase in laboratory prepared samples. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology. 23, 383-385.

Macleod, G., Hall, A. J., and Fallick, A. E. (1990). An applied mineralogical investigation of concrete degradation in a major concrete road bridge. Mineralogical Magazine. 54, 637–644.

Pye, K., and Miller, J.A. (1990). Chemical and biochemical weathering of pyritic mudrocks in a shale embankment. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology. 23, 365-382.

Snedker, E.A., and Temporal, J. (1990). M40 Motorway Banbury IV Contract – Lime stabilisation. Highways & Transportation. December 1990.

1988

Hawkins, A.B., and Pinches, G.M. (1988). Expansion due to gypsum growth. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Expansive Soils. New Delhi, December 1st-4th, 1987. Published by Balkema, Rotterdam.

Hawkins, A.B., and Pinches, G.M. (1988). Sulphate analysis on black mudstones: Discussion – contribution by Loveland P.J and response by authors. Geotechnique. 38 (2), 322-323.

1987

Hawkins, A.B., and Pinches, G.M. (1987a). Cause and significance of heave at Llandough Hospital, Cardiff – a case history of ground floor heave due to gypsum growth. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology. 20, 41-57.

Hawkins, A.B., and Pinches, G.M. (1987b). Sulphate analysis on black mudstones. Geotechnique. 37, 191-196.

Wilson, E.J. (1987). Pyritic shale heave in the Lower Lias at Barry, Glamorgan. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology. 20, 251-253.

1986

Cooper, A.H. (1986). Foundered strata and subsidence resulting from the dissolution of Permian gypsum in the Ripon and Bedale areas, North Yorkshire. In: Harwood, G.M., Smith, D.B. (Eds.), The English Zechstein and Related Topics. Geological Society of London Special Publication. 22, 127-139.

Hawkins, A.B., and Pinches, G.M. (1986). Timing and correct chemical testing of soils/weal rock. In: Hawkins, A.B. (ed.) Site Investigation Practice: assessing BS 5930. Geological Society Engineering Geology Special Publication. 2, 273-277.

Johnson, R. (1986). Foundation problems associated with low-rise housing. Technical Information Service. No. 62. Chartered Institute of Building.

Chartered Institute of Building. (1986). Foundation problems associated with low-rise housing. Part 2. Technical Information Service. Number 62. pp. 1-8.

1985

Crammond, N.J. (1985). Thaumasite in failed cement mortar and renders from exposed brickwork. Cement and Concrete Research. 15, 1039-1050.

1983

BRE. (1983). Hardcore. Digest 276. BRE, Watford.

Steward, H.E., and Cripps, J.C. (1983). Some engineering implications of chemical weathering of pyritic shale. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology. 16, 281-289.

1981

BRE. (1981). Concrete in sulphate-bearing soils and groundwaters. Digest 250. BRE, Watford.

Vear, A., and Curtis, C. (1981). A quantitative evaluation of pyrite weathering. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms. 6, 191-198.

1979

BRE. (1979). Fill and hardcore. BRE Digest 222. BRE, Watford.

Hawkins, A.B. (1979). Case histories of some effects of solution/dissolution in the Keuper rocks of the Severn Estuary region. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology. 12, 31-40.

Russell, D.J., and Parker, A. (1979). Geotechnical, mineralogical and chemical interrelationships in weathering profiles of an overconsolidated clay. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology. 12, 107–116.

1978

Nixon, P.J. (1978). Floor heave in buildings due to the use of pyritic shales as fill material. Chemistry and Industry. 4th March 1978, 160-164.

1972

Bickerdike, Allen, Rich and Partners. (1972). Solid floor on a shale fill. Building Failure Sheet 14. Building, 14 April 1972.

1962

Sherwood, P.T. (1962). Effect of sulphates on cement and lime stabilised soils. Roads and Road Construction. 40 (470), 34-40.

Sherwood, P.T. (1962). M40 – lime stabilisation experiences. In: Rogers, D.D.F., Glendinning, S., and Dixon, N. (eds.) Lime stabilisation. pp. 142-153.

1958

Midgley, H.G. (1958). The staining of concrete by pyrite. Magazine of Concrete Research. August 1958. pp. 75-78.